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AH Extension

Frame work for Strengthening Technology Application and Delivery System in AH Extension*

But Profound Message

Currently, there is an enormous need to mobilise AH Extension services for food, nutritional and livelihood security in the country. India has only 2.4% of world’s land and 4.2% of world’s renewable water supply. With this, Indian Agriculture needs to sustain 16.8% of world’s population and 11% of world’s livestock. Out of 142 million ha of cultivated land only 55 million ha is irrigated. About 65% of the population is engaged in agriculture contributing to 21% of gross domestic product (GDP) and 11.2% of the total export earnings.Agriculture is supporting a large number of agro-industry, generating 55 billion US dollars in the food sector only.

With fifteen discrete agro climatic regions, country’s agriculture is very diverse and so the distribution of livestock population. The impact of research and development efforts is reflected in remarkable increase in an all round productivity wrt crop, horticulture, animal and fishery sectors. Compared to 1950, the productivity in 2005 became 3.3 times in case of food grains, 2.1 for vegetables, 1.6 for fruits, 5.7 for fish, 4.8 for eggs and 1.8 for milk. In spite of these remarkable achievements, country faces great challenges in further increasing the productivity of all these sectors to match the population demand. The livestock and fisheries sector play an important role in generating income and employment for marginal farmers and landless labourers in meeting nutritional and livelihood security.

The livestock sector has maintained a respectable growth of 4-5% per annum in spite of several constraints, contributing about 108.5 million tonnes of milk, 55.6 billion eggs, 42.7 million kg of wool and 3.8 million tonnes of meat (Economic Survey 2009-10). The percapita milk availability increased from 112 gm/day in 1968-69 to 258 gm/day during 2009-10. An overview of different components in the livestock sector is summarized in

* Keynote address delivered in the Conference on “Changing Perspectives in Extension” – for effective Livestock delivery system.

** Assistant Director General (Agrill. Extn.), ICAR, KAB I, Pusa, New Delhi – 110012.

Table:1.Livestock sector Status:An Over View.






The share of milk group in total value of output from livestock sector increased from 6.5 per cent in 1950-60 to 69 per cent in 2000-10.

The growth in output of milk has been an average of 1.04 percent during 1950 - 60 and 3.33 percent during 2000-10.

Buffaloes are the largest contributors to milk production.

About 78 percent of milk produced is handled by unorganised sector and remaining is shared by co-operatives and private dairies. Over 1.33 lakh village level dairy cooperative societies spread over the country collects about 25.1 million litres of milk per day and market about 20 million litres.



Share of meat sector except poultry meat has declined from 10.82 percent to 10.47 percent to the total value of livestock output during 1950-51 to 2005-06.

Meat output increased from 0.76 percent annual growth rate in 1950-60 to 3.00 percent in 2000 to 2005.

The sharp increase in the annual growth from 1.66 percent to 3.86 percent during 1970-71 to 1989-90 was mainly due to phenomenal increase of buffalo meat.

Extremely low contribution of sheep and goats to total meat output all along despite a sizeable (about 38% of livestock population) population is present.



The annual growth rate has increased from 1.46 percent in 1960-70 to 4.47 percent in 2000-06.

The share of Poultry sector (in meat of eggs) increased from 3.65 percent to 4.47 percent during the period 1950-2006.

The sector had transformed itself into advanced industrial production in some states.



Maintained a steady growth rate of around two percent during 1970s and around four percent in 1980-1990.

Changing Perspectives and Challenges

During the last two decades, course of Livestock development has largely influenced by factors such as globalization, trade liberalization and increasing role of private sectors. Apart from these, this sector has also been challenged by the factors such as (i) Shrinking resource base, (ii) Changes in demand and consumption pattern, (iii) Changes in farming systems including increasing diversification to high value crops (led to fodder crisis), (iv) Declining public investments in agriculture, (v) International developments – WTO (subsidy issues and trade liberalization) and (vi) Climate change (global warming, seasonal variations, increasing occurrence of natural disasters, spread of newer diseases like bird flue, SARS etc.) The policy approach to agriculture (which has a direct bearing on livestock), did not take care of building new capital assets in irrigation, power, rural infrastructure, waste land development and strengthening the grass root level resource base. Extension still continues to be funded as part of central and state level schemes/programmes without much operational freedom at the local level, though the strategic research and extension plans (SREP) under ATMA envisages bottom up planning for extension.

While farmers require a wider range of support to address the emerging challenges, extension mainly functions as an agency for technology dissemination. Most of the organizations including public sector departments continue to work in isolation. Marketing in extension has been a recent addition but is understood and implemented mostly as provision of output price information in various markets and this is highly inadequate to address the challenges in marketing.

The farmers need to make number of critical decisions such as (i) technological options keeping in view of the probability and resources in terms of land, water, capital, labour etc., (ii) optimal use of the technologies under his system, (iii) how and when to make changes in his farming system, (iv) the quality specifications to be achieved, (v) finding out the most relevant information, (vi) working out feasible OFT-farm income and (vii) to cope up with the changes due to policy implications, national and international developments.

The extension system therefore must be empowered to deliver the knowledge on (i) right technology and methodology, (ii) market information and decisions, (iii) changes to be made in accordance with the policy, national and international developments, (iv) financial and investment decisions and (v) resource optimization, production plan and risk analysis. The extension delivery system therefore needs to gear up to face the current challenges to provide a range of agricultural advisory services, facilitate technology application, transfer and resource management.

This dynamic livestock situation is posing several challenges to livestock extension services. Some of the challenges with which the extension personnel have to cope up with are;

How to reach millions of livestock owners spread in every nook and corner of the country especially those who are thriving in Complex, Diverse and Risk prone (CDR) environment?

How to improve the living standards of the rural livestock owners through livestock rearing especially when the pressure on land is increasing and common property lands are slowly fading out forcing the rural poor to maintain the animals on purchased fodders?

How to sustain the production of livestock products with decreasing area under fodder and increase in the competition for feed resources and decreasing interests of the people in livestock rearing?

How to face the emerging livestock development situation as a sequel to the technological and development interventions?

How to take cognizance of the changes that are taking place in the society which include : Shift from farming to industry; Shift from rural to urban (migration); Shift from grazing to stall feeding; Shift in focus from social to economic issues.

In this context an analysis of the present extension system under operation in the country is made and presented in


Extension organisations





Aimed at decentralized decision making and bringing convergence among extension providers in a district: Promotion of commodity interest groups; Development of a strategic research and extension plan: Provide additional funds to these agencies for key extension activities such as farm schools, demonstrations, exposure visits and trainings

No dedicated manpower; Limited resources, Convergence limited to activities undertaken with the specific budget for ATMA (Rs.80-100 lacs an year)



Technology application (technology assessment and refinement) through on-farm trials, front-line demonstration and training

Limited reach; Several vacant positions Inadequate operational funds; Weak linkages with other development agencies in the district; Poor technology and methodological backstopping from the host institution; Non availability of critical facilities like soil and water testing facility, farming system models, demonstration units etc in some KVKs


State line departments(Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, etc)

Regulatory role; Implementation of development programmes that involve distribution of subsidies and subsidized inputs; Organising extension programmes

Only the Department of Agriculture has staff assigned up to block and village level; Large number of vacancies, especially in remote and distant regions; Grass root level VEWs lack technical competence to deal with emerging challenges: Lack expertise on cutting edge technology, organizational, management and marketing aspects;Implementation of schemes / programmes leave little time for extension Extension is weak in animal husbandry and fisheries departments



Training farmers on new technologies

Defunct in most places, Acute shortage of funds and manpower


SAU(Directorate of extension)

Implement extension programmes of the SAU and oversee activities of KVK

Staff and fund shortage; Weak state support; Inadequate links with development departments; No adequate field presence



Exhibit wide diversity in terms of reach, credibility and capacity; Have good knowledge and networks with communities in villages they operate; Present in difficult and remote regions; Innovative in their approaches; Can potentially complement approaches of the public sector extension.

Effective reach restricted to select villages in their areas of operation Many of them do not have adequate technical capacity Wide variation in credibility and track record


Private Agri-business firms

Agri-input firms mainly involved in product demonstrations; Agro-processing and marketing firms mainly commodity oriented but do provide integrated support (inputs, technical support and marketing) for contract growers;

Present in only select regions; Narrowly focused on business interest; Lack focus on long term capacity development of farmers



Dissemination of information on new technologies

Low literacy levels constrain penetration of print media; Poor content, inadequate coverage and little telecast time through television channels; Potential of media yet to be fully realised due to lack of integration of mass media with other extension programmes/approaches


Private consultants

Support large farmers growing cash crops and high value horticulture

Limited to select crops and regions Affordable only by large farmers



Training senior and middle level extension managers Conduct studies on extension systems and policies Conducts management educational programes in agriculture Provide Consultancy

Need greater focus on extension systems research and policy initiatives Limited faculty and funding Need to establish international linkages



Training middle level extension staff at the state level Conduct studies on extension systems at the state level

Lack of infrastructure, expertise (faculty); Inadequate focus on extension studies; Weak links with actors outside the public sector



Training middle level extension managers at the regional level

Inadequate infrastructure Inadequate training capacity, linkages and autonomy.

Since the issues related to livestock delivery system is multidimensional, for the convenience of discussion it can be grouped under the following heads.

Infrastructure and service support system.

Livestock Extension, Research and Education.

Field Level Livestock Extension system.

Infrastructure and service support system Purpose and Significance of Livestock Extension Education

Livestock extension involves systematic and organized communication with livestock owners with a view to help them in such a way that the livestock owners


obtain a better insight into their present and future position as livestock owners;

acquire sufficient knowledge and skills necessary to increase production or reduce cost of production;

develop positive attitudes of livestock development

able to choose feasible and optimum objectives;

able to identify problems, look for solutions, solve the problems identified; and

evaluate the results within the farming system situation in which they are operating.

Issues to be Addressed

Availability of quality germ plasm, production of improved breeds and an effective supply system for different regions benefitting varying production system is imperative to capitalize on the potential breeds for substantially strengthening the genetic resource base for enhancing productivity and production.

The critical issue of feed and fodder shortage need to be addressed by enhancing bio-availability of poor quality feeds, identifying newer non-conventional feeds and developing resource-based region-specific feeding modules, and developing fodder ware houses.

Ration balancing, compounded cattle feed, by pass protein/fat, area specific mineral mixtures, densification/enrichment of crop residues, increasing the area under fodder cultivation, fodder seed production/ distribution, better management of common property resources, ban on export of feed resources, removal of VAT and excise duty on use of molasses are the critical support required for strengthening the livestock feed and fodder supply system in the country.

Disease prevention and health care system need to be strengthened in terms of timely disease forecasting, surveillance, monitoring and control mechanisms. The availability of disease diagnostics, vaccines, timely vaccinations, and strengthening the health care system are very important. Use of GIS for animal surveillance and monitoring helps to develop suitable control strategies.

Market surveillance through information technology-cyber extension Conducting livestock extension education programmes on good AH Practices, Good Lab practices, Good manufacturing practices, capacity building in the areas of understanding WTO, SPS, food safety, risk analysis etc. are the prime areas to be focused by the livestock extension service system.

Livestock and Poultry Development:


Non availability of quality semen of high yielding breeds

Inadequate fodder availability

High cost of concentrate feed

Technological Solution:

Frozen semen and AI techniques

Embryo transfer

Establishment of community bull farms

Hybrid fodder varieties such as CO3/ CO4/ Lucerne/ Berseem etc.

Silage and hay making

Enrichment of paddy straw

Mineral mixture lick

Recommendations/ Action Points:

Establishment of semen production centres and mobile units for reaching the unreached through AI.

Training the rural youth for AI as lay inseminators

Establishment of community fodder farms/ satellite fodder farms in the wastelands, sloppy lands etc.

Disease prevention and health care system need to be strengthened in terms of timely disease forecasting, surveillance, monitoring and control mechanisms. The availability of disease diagnostics, vaccines, timely vaccinations, and strengthening the health care system are very important. Use of GIS for animal surveillance and monitoring helps to develop suitable control strategies.

Since time immemorial, farmers are under the mercy of 3 Ms, i.e. monsoon, market and money lenders. Now, with the entry of 4th M, i.e. multi nationals Indian farmers are put under the strategically designed and professionally executed cut throat competition by the multinationals. Today, right from seed, plant protection, machinery, post harvest and to market the multinational companies have made their presence and the livestock sector is under tremendous pressure from these external elements. From quality parameters to pricing we are in the receiving end and therefore it is needed to gear up the sector to match with the current scenario. Among other things, we need a uniform national standard for quality specifications with respect to livestock products.

In line with Telecommunication Regulatory Authority (TERAI), a national food quality standard regulatory authority enforcing one quality standard will help the livestock sector in a great way.

Presently, so many standards like Agmark, FPO and BSI/ ISI standards need to be confirmed with by the producers. Business environment therefore must be conducive for domestic producers in facing the competition across the border. Strengthening is required right from cold chain facilities at grass root level to handling facilities in the port for facilitating our Indian products to reach overseas consumers and international markets.

(b) Livestock Extension Research and Education

Addressing the emerging challenges would require new approaches which must be supported by Livestock research and education system. The research and education system should focus on the application of cutting edge technologies, thrust on technology integration, use of information communication technology, quality aspects in addition to increase in quantity, thrust on post harvest, food processing and value addition, resource management etc.

Right technology and Right methodology are the two key elements required to be focused by the livestock extension research and education systems. The inventory of right technology and methodology need to be made available by the system. Research and education system must reform itself in terms of content, approach, structure and processes. Adequate focus has to be given on effective technology selection, optimization, application and management. Hitherto, the extension efforts were largely influenced by the approaches and models that were evolved during 60s and 80s. These are insufficient to deal with the current concerns emerging out of globalization, sustainability and other dimensions of livestock development in the present day context. The frame work of strengthening the research and education includes.

Assessment of existing livestock extension system, approaches and organizations against the back drop of changing scenario to come out with practical solutions for strengthening/ restructuring the system.

Broadening the scope of technical mandate keeping in view the current demand scenario.

Development of location specific, participatory gender sensitive and customized extension materials and methodologies.

Emphasis on FSR/E and farmer participatory approach.

Strengthening the operational linkages and partnership between research, extension, farmer, market and other key stake holders.

Empowering farmers and organising them into commodity groups/associations and federating them.

Integrating ICT in the extension research, education and technology development system.

Focus on issues like IPR, Farmers Rights and DUS guidelines.

The management concepts such as 5-S, Six sigma, JIT, TEM, TQM, LFW, RFD, network analysis, gap and impact analysis etc. needs to be integrated into the extension education system to update the course content.

The livestock extension education system is conceptually 15 years back and needs to be updated.

The major issues, responses required, suggested actions need to be analysed and an action plan is to be prepared not as an academic exercise but with a mission mode approach. Till date the practice of admiring and adopting approaches evolved and suggested by overseas experts is continued rather than working out an indigenous methodology and framework. KVK and ATMA/ SREP are the finest models and approaches put under operations in the country. This needs to be strengthened by professionally managing them as well as working out a convergence between them in their function.

(C) Frame work for strengthening livestock delivery system:

The livestock extension system needs to gear up their capacity in terms of manpower, expertise, finance, structure, institutional linkages and the kinds of methods, approaches and delivery system they employ.

The issues to be taken up for strengthening livestock extension are;

(i) Farmers empowerment and farmer organizations development
(ii) Technology backstopping, application, integration and management
(ii) Institutional and Partnership issues
(iv) Frontier areas of extension, HRD and skill development
(v) Policy issues,

Lack of quality man power dedicated to the livestock extension is a serious constraint and challenge encountered by the system. The livestock extension system with business and professional approach is a must. This is possible only if the system recruits personnel who can bring in different kinds of expertise. For instance, expertise related to cutting edge technologies, organizational development, market development, legal issues related to farmer rights, IPR, ICT etc. are very much important. This would involve some de-learning of our conventional technology dissemination approach and learning new ways of doing things. Strengthening of natural and regional level training facilities for continuous skill up gradation is a must. Assessment of quality of extension personnel and services, conceiving a natural level mission mode approach is the need of this hour.

Convergence of Extension Services:

There are many extension service providers in the field, providing different kinds of useful services like information and service support to farmers. They are state, central government agencies, agribusiness companies, agri-preneurs, input dealers, manufacturing firms, NGOs, farmers organisations and progressive farmers. There is duplication of efforts with multiplicity of agents attending extension work without convergence. There should be a coordinated attempt to synergise and converge these efforts at the district level and below to improve the performance of various stake holders. One such frame work for Technology Development and Delivery System is given hereunder at Fig.1

Fig. 1: A Framework for Technology Development And Delivery System


Enhanced Profitability, Productivity, Sustainability, Livelihood Security, Employment generation, Competitiveness and Food, Nutrition & Environmental Security

Some of the issues related to the convergence of extension services are:

What type of institutional arrangement could be made keeping in view of the operational convenience, for achieving an effective convergence?

What is the frame work of reference and strategies for such convergence?

Identification of need for convergence, drawing a convergence model, operational steps for convergence and coordinating the identified activities for effective convergence.

What is the operational working plan for such convergence?

The critical areas in which such convergence effort is required are:

Farmer empowerment and farmer organisational development

Technology backstopping and management

Public private partnership’s

Frontier areas for extension, HRD and skill development

The details of areas of capacity building exercise in terms of training, method, or procedure of capacity building, infrastructure required need to be worked out. It is beyond doubt that combination of human performance with proper resource structure lead to development. An effective convergence of method/ procedure, Agency/ infrastructure no doubt will ensure proper use of scarce resources, time and energy. The details of the areas of capacity building, method/ procedure adopted and agency/ infrastructural convergence are given here under at

Table:3 Infrastructural convergence at Grass root Level


Areas of capacity building

Method / Procedure

Agency/ Infrastructure/ convergence


Farmers knowledge, skill and attitude

i) Breeding
ii) Feeding
iii) Health care and disease prevention
iv) Value addition and marketing

i) Training/ Demonstration
ii) Exhibition & farmers fair
iii) Extension literature
iv) Mass Media
v) Use of ICT and cyber extension
vi) Field campaign

KVKs, SIRD, NIRD, IIE, ICAR & SAU Extension system. State level livestock development agency and Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry.


Leadership, communication, skill and managerial development

i) Strengthening of village level leadership
ii) Developing interpersona l communication
iii)Managerial skills such as planning, organizing,coordination etc.

i) Training/ Role play
ii) Success stories and cases
iii) Management games



Organisational Skills

i) Organisation of farmers groups.
ii) Organisation of producer/cooperatives/ societies/ union or federations.

i) Training in leadership
ii) Training in group dynamics & group formations
iii) Performance linked specialized training
iv) Record keeping
v) Financial management

i) Cooperative training institute.
ii) IIE
iv) EEI


Marketing and Business Skills

i) Market Analysis
ii) Demand and supply Forecasting
iii)Supply chain, Cold chain and networking
iv) Retail marketing and creation of market network

i) Lectures and skills training by practical
ii) Exposure visits to progressive states and leading co-operative dairies

i) Cooperative training institutes
iii) IIE/EEI
v) Leading management institutes in Rural development.


Establishment of grass root level infrastructural facilities

i) AI Centres
ii) Mobile unit
iii) Fodder demonstration units
iv) Milk Collection centres
v) Bulk Coolers
vi) Chilling centres
vii) Rural Marketing Network & centres
viii) Establishment of Milk Processing centres at regional level
ix) Value addition and manufacturing facilities at district level

i) Analysis of the types of breed requirement and quantity of semen requirement
ii)Ensuring quality semen supply and availability of skilled insemination
iii) Training of rural youths for paid insemination services.
iv) Preparation and submission of suitable projects for the establishment of milk collection centres, chilling centres and rural marketing centres through funding agencies.

i) Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying
ii) State Milk Federation
iii) NDDB

Cases of Technology Backstopping and Convergence:

Technological backstopping to the Livestock Extension System and other centrally sponsored schemes such as NREGS and SGSY is a must at the ground level leading to sustainable development in rural areas. The appropriate technological support will help to create grass root level assets/ infrastructure through the extension programmes and schemes which in turn will help as a local resource in their command to undertake sustainable agriculture. Such an attempt ensures self reliance and less external input dependence agriculture. Some of the successful relevant cases of convergence are being presented here for discussion. They are: (i) Quality Hybrid Maize production, (ii) Mithun microchipping for identification, (iii) SGSY – SHGs – Technology- Financial institutions linkages (iv) Convergence of MANREGA (NREGA) and ICAR, KVK, (v) FSR/E in tribal Areas of E- Godavari

CASE - 1:

One of the successful convergence attempt made in the NE Region which is now extended to the other parts of the country is the hybrid maize seed production programme where in a successful convergence of various stake holders is being achieved. The partners are PD Maize, 27 KVKs distributed in 8 states, NRC-Mithun, AAU, State Department of Agriculture of respective States, farmers’ organisation, NGOs etc. lead to food, nutritional and livelihood security in NE Region. Based on the success the above programme is now being implemented in the whole of the country involving 160 KVKs, eight ZPDs, PD, Maize and Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR.

Hybrid Maize Production Programme in NE Region- A successful case of convergence

CASE - 2: Mithun Identification Using Microchip Installation: Arunachal Pradesh

Traditionally the mithuns are identified with the identification markings made through ear cut, branding, tattooing etc. since these methods can be easily be manipulated, many times farmers are disputed over the ownership. Theft and ownership dispute is a common problem due to the lack of full proof identification practice adopted by the farmers. KVK Papumpare district has come out with the solution of installing microchip installation on the Mithuns for the scientific identification. This programme was initiated with the help of forest department of Arunachal Pradesh for technical collaboration and animal husbandry department for the field level support. The farmers organisation, local NGOs were also actively involved in the above project. The details of the convergence, output and outcome of the programmes are given here under.

CASE- 3: Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) – SHGs – Technnology - Financial Institutions – Linkages

The SGSY provides credit cum subsidy for various income generating activities of SHGs including those related to irrigation and land development, horticulture, animal husbandry and dairy development, fisheries, village and agro based industries, rural handicrafts, handlooms etc. The key issue under SGSY is a social mobilization of rural poor into SHGs; setting up of sustainable micro enterprises by selection of key economic activities depending on available resources, occupational skills, appropriate technology and; financial assistance through a mix of Bank Credit and Government Subsidy; infrastructure, technology and marketing support with forward and backward linkages.

The appropriate technologies developed by ICAR and KVKs for these sectors need to be demonstrated and disseminated through SHGs. One such example of convergence of efforts by KVK, ICAR Institute, DRDA and SHGs in developing entrepreneurship development in East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh is given here under.

A total number of 293 SHG groups with 2158 beneficiaries from 143 villages established 514 household units. Each individual is earning about Rs. 1000 to Rs. 3000/ month depending upon the activity they have taken up. The KVK CTRI, Rajamundry developed very good linkages with various financial institutions and rural development agencies of state, central and NGOs in a more effective way for economic viability and sustainability of these units in rural areas. These organisations besides acting as a resource centres and programme sponsors, provided financial support, scheme and subsidy components.

The details of linkages is given in the figure presented below:

NIRD : National Institute of Rural Development

DWCRA : Development of Women and Children

PMRY : Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana

DRDA : District Rural Development Agency

CMEY : Chief Minister Employment Yojana

UNDP : United Nations Development Programme

KVIC : Khadi Village Industries Commission

IRDA : Integrated Rural Development Agency

CASE-4: Convergence of NREGA and ICAR- KVK.

Ministry of Rural Development implements various schemes for employment generation and allevation of rural poverty and infrastructure development in the rural areas. The major schemes being implemented by the ministry are the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) and the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGYS). After a series of high level interface meetings held between Ministry of Rural Development and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), it has been decided that appropriate technological backstopping to the schemes of NREGS and SGSY would be provided by the Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) of ICAR at the ground level leading to sustainable development in the rural areas. The KVKs have developed appropriate technologies for on farm and off farm activities. Initially, 50 districts have been identified on a pilot basis for technological interventions by KVKs based on the requirements of the districts.

The detail guidelines mentioning the need for convergence, parameters for convergence, strategies for NREGA (MARD) and ICAR (MOA) convergence, have been worked out. Initially, the process of convergence with ICAR is to begin with those areas of natural resource management where the KVKs have developed technical experience. The concern for quality is central to NREGA and KVK is expected to promote appropriate technologies for NREGA works. An illustrative list of NRM activities where the expertise of KVKs can be used in conjunction with the choice of works under NREGA was prepared and provided. The list includes, water conservation, ground water recharge, drought proofing, development of irrigation facility, land development, flood control and protection works etc. In addition, the value adding activities on NREGA work also proposed to be attempted through convergence with ICAR technologies.

The efforts of different development agencies need to be successfully channelised by means of arriving at a common understanding and working out suitable implementation strategy for achieving the common goal. Our country provides wide opportunities for fruitful convergence of various extension systems operation with a common goal. Such efforts not only save our precious resources but also ensure effective utilization of various facilities created at the grass root level including the human resources and time required for achieving the target. Creating an inbuilt coordination mechanism in these agencies will help to work out fruitful convergence in the possible areas as well as its effective implementation.

CASE-5: Assuring a Livelihood Security to Tribals in East Godavari District- Convergence of KVK-CTRI, ITDA, AP Forest Department, SAU and NGO.

An inter institutional project was undertaken by CTRI, KVK-CTRI and Integrated Tribal Development Agency, East Godavari District towards farming system analysis and agricultural development in the tribal areas. It was revealed from the findings that tamarind collection and marketing was the main source of income to the tribal family. The findings further revealed that the tribals were facing the problem of declining yield of tamarind and so their income was constantly declining inspite of good demand for tamarind in the market. The senile plantation and cutting of tamarind trees were the main cause of yield decline and it was estimated that around 25,000 fresh tamarind trees to save the tribals from the approaching livelihood crisis due to declining forest produce of tamarind.

A joint action was conceived by the KVK-CTRI, ITDA, AP Forest Department, SAU and local tribal NGO to plant fresh tamarind tree saplings so that after 6 to 8 years, tamarind fruits will be available. With the help of forest department, College of Forestry and ITDA about 25,000 tamarind saplings were procured and with the community participation through local NGOs in the agency area, the afforestation drive with PK-Variety of tamarind was initiated. Within a span of three months before monsoon, all saplings were planted and at the end of third year it was reported by the forest department that about 16,000 saplings were alive and grown well. It is now beyond doubt the convergence efforts of these organisation have resulted in assuring the tribals with their livelihood source.

Similarly, more than 500 families in the tribal area were covered with back yard poultry units by introducing the nicobaro fowls brought from A&N Islands. Nicobari eggs were bought from CARI, Portblair and hatched at Rajamundry for establishing a parent line at KVK- CTRI. From the parent line , eggs were produced and the chicks/ eggs were distributed to selected tribal families with a condition that the beneficiary should adopt five more beneficiaries in their village and support them with a minimum of 10 eggs/ five chicks. In that manner a network of 500 families could get the benefit of nicobari chicks in their back yard. The nicobari chicks are capable of producing a minimum of 145-100 eggs under no management condition. These birds are also sturdy and tolerant to many of the local diseases. The convergence effort of KVK-CARI, CARI Portblair, ITDA and tribal associations helped in establishing more than 500 backyard poultry units in the agency area ensuring nutritional security and income generating opportunity.

Way Forward

Several organization implement extension programmes with very little coordination. Co-ordination lacking even among public sector organizations. Establishment of national extension authority (NEA) can potentially bring about much needed integration for objective planning and delivery of programmes. Integration of extension activities at the district level also needs policy support. Several initiatives that were successful at the pilot stage had failed when external support was withdrawn. Another major constraint is the declining financial support for extension. Enhanced funding is crucial for improving the ability of extension to deal with the complex challenges faced by it. It also needs crucial research back up on new approaches, methodologies and management tools and techniques relevant for different situations.

To summarize, among other things, (i) enhanced funding, (ii) strengthening extension research and education, (iii) creation of a national extension authority, (iv) developing technology inventory and methodology modules, (v) developing strategies to improve sustainability of pilot initiatives, (vi) Farming System Approach in Extension along with district resource mapping and planning, (vii) networking and partnership approach, (viii) inclusion of newer concept and methodologies, (ix) Creation of national and regional level knowledge management system for continuous technology and methodology backstopping and (x) Resource and market led approaches for sustainability are the most important areas to be focused upon for developing a frame work for technology development and livestock delivery system.


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Basic District Level Interactive Extension Model (BDLIEM)